Private fairness companies are investing in well being care from cradle to grave, and in that latter class fairly actually. A small however rising proportion of the funeral residence trade—and the broader death care market—is being wolfed up by personal equity-backed companies attracted by excessive revenue margins, predictable revenue, and the eventual deaths of tens of thousands and thousands of child boomers.
The funeral residence trade is in some ways a primary goal for personal fairness, which appears to be like for markets which might be extremely fragmented and may gain advantage from consolidation. By cobbling collectively chains of funeral properties, these companies can leverage economies of scale in buying, enhance advertising methods, and share administrative features.
According to trade officers, about 19,000 funeral homes make up the $23 billion trade within the U.S., a minimum of 80% of which stay privately owned and operated—principally mother and pop companies, with a couple of regional chains thrown in. The remaining 20%, or about 3,800 properties, are owned by funeral residence chains, and personal equity-backed companies personal about 1,000 of these.
Consumer advocates fear that non-public fairness companies will observe the lead of publicly traded firms which have constructed massive chains of funeral properties and raised costs for customers. “The real master that’s being served is not the grieving family who’s paying the bill—it’s the shareholder,” mentioned Joshua Slocum, govt director of the Funeral Consumers Alliance, a nonprofit that seeks to teach customers about funeral prices and companies.
Although funeral worth knowledge shouldn’t be available to the general public, surveys by the local affiliates of the alliance have discovered that when publicly traded or personal equity-backed chains purchase particular person funeral properties, worth hikes are inclined to observe.
In Tucson, Arizona, for instance, when an area proprietor sold Angel Valley Funeral Home in 2019 to personal equity-backed Foundation Partners Group, costs elevated from $425 to $760 for a cremation, from $1,840 to $2,485 for a burial with no viewing or visitation, and from $3,405 to $4,480 for a full, economical funeral.
In the Arizona metropolis of Mesa, the sale of Lakeshore Mortuary to the publicly traded funeral residence chain Service Corporation International led to cost will increase for a cremation from $1,565 in 2018 to $1,770 in 2021, for a burial from $2,795 to $3,680, and for a cheap funeral from $4,385 to $5,090.
“We believe our pricing is competitive and reasonable in the markets in which we operate,” a Service Corporation International official mentioned in an electronic mail.
Details of these worth will increase had been offered by Martha Lundgren, a member of the Funeral Consumers Alliance of Arizona’s board. She mentioned funeral residence acquisitions have led to the cancellation of pricing agreements negotiated on behalf of customers who’re members of the alliance. In 2020, a cremation at Adair Dodge Chapel in Tucson price members $395, almost two-thirds off the $1,100 commonplace worth. But after Foundation Partners Group acquired the funeral residence, the member pricing settlement was canceled, and the worth of a direct cremation rose to $1,370.
Foundation Partners Group officers mentioned the worth will increase partly replicate the upper worth of provides, comparable to caskets, in addition to rising labor prices. But a lot of the will increase, they mentioned, signify a transfer to a extra clear pricing system that features administrative and transportation charges that different funeral properties add on later.
“We don’t take advantage of people in there when they’re not thinking clearly,” mentioned Kent Robertson, the corporate’s president and CEO. “That’s just not who we are.”
A giant surge of consolidation occurred within the U.S. funeral residence trade within the late Nineteen Eighties and early Nineteen Nineties, and once more round 2010, mentioned Chris Cruger, a Phoenix-based advisor to the trade. And acquisitions have reached a feverish tempo prior to now two to a few years. Many buyers are banking on a big uptick in demand for demise care companies within the coming years as 73 million child boomers, the oldest of whom will probably be of their late 70s, proceed to age.
“Sheer demographics are obviously in everybody’s favor here,” Cruger mentioned. Funeral properties have engaging margins already, and mixing them into chains to share administrative prices might increase earnings much more.
Meanwhile, many funeral residence owner-operators are reaching retirement age and have nobody within the household keen to take over. A 2021 survey by the National Funeral Directors Association discovered that 27% of householders deliberate to promote their enterprise or retire inside 5 years.
The want to promote, mixed with the funding cash pouring into the sector, has pushed costs for funeral properties to new heights. Before personal fairness turned its eye to funeral properties, they had been promoting for 3 to 5 instances their annual income. “Now I’m hearing seven to nine,” mentioned Barbara Kemmis, govt director of the Cremation Association of North America, a commerce group for the cremation trade.
The worth in funeral properties lies in additional than their brick-and-mortar property. Funeral residence administrators are sometimes integral elements of their communities and have established vital goodwill with their neighbors. So when company chains purchase these properties, they not often change the identify and sometimes maintain the previous house owners round to easy the transition.
Tony Kumming, president of the NewBridge Group in Tampa, Florida, helps dealer funeral residence gross sales. Many of his shoppers stay skeptical of the massive companies and sometimes will take much less cash to promote to somebody they imagine gained’t stain their hard-earned reputations. Most former house owners plan to dwell in the neighborhood and don’t need their mates and neighbors to be mistreated. “I’m not saying someone is going to take half of what another company is offering,” Kumming mentioned. “But there’s two big pieces to a sale now: That’s money and the right fit.”
Five years in the past, when Robert Olthof determined to promote his household’s funeral residence in Elmira, New York, he contacted a number of the massive publicly traded funeral residence chains. But as representatives from a number of firms visited him to make their affords, Olthof realized that not one of the massive chains had despatched somebody versed within the service facet of the enterprise. “They sent their accountants, and they sent their lawyers,” he recalled. “Everything was about the numbers, the numbers, the numbers. And I didn’t like that.”
Instead, Olthof bought to Greg Rollins, a former funeral director who had amassed a privately owned, 90-site chain of funeral properties all through the Northeast. Rollins had provided much less cash than the large chains had, however he knew what it was wish to be awoken at 2:30 a.m. and placed on a go well with to go assist a grieving household. He knew what it was wish to bury a baby.
“I can’t put a dollar-amount value on how much it’s really worth selling to a person who is a funeral director themselves,” Olthof mentioned. “Because moving forward, your name is still going to be on the front of that building.”
Victoria Haneman, a Creighton University School of Law professor who research the funeral residence trade, worries that new company possession could be devastating for grieving households. “They are not behaving like normal, rational consumers,” she mentioned. “They’re not bargain-shopping because death is viewed as an inappropriate time to bargain-shop.”
For most households, a funeral will probably be one of many largest bills they ever incur. But they typically enter the procuring course of cognitively impaired by grief and not sure of what’s customary or applicable.
Only 1 in 5 customers go to a couple of funeral residence to acquire a worth listing, based on a 2022 survey commissioned by the Consumer Federation of America. And on-line comparisons are nearly not possible—a study by the federation and the Funeral Consumers Alliance discovered that simply 18% of the funeral properties they sampled listed their costs on their web sites. As a outcome, households typically lean closely on the experience of a single funeral director, who has a motive to promote them the costliest choices. So customers might be pushed into shopping for packages for open-casket funerals that embrace embalming and different companies that drive up the price and could also be pointless.
“Is that sort of pickled, shellacked, cosmetized, preserved corpse where the future will be? I don’t know that the answer is ‘yes,’” Haneman mentioned. “And I think there are investors who are betting that it’s not.”
Foundation Partners Group is a primary instance. Backed by the personal fairness agency Access Holdings, the funeral residence chain shifted 5 years in the past to buying funeral properties with excessive cremation charges. Cremation charges nationally have been steadily climbing over the previous twenty years, with nearly 58% of households now selecting cremation over casket burials. Foundation Partners expects that fee to hit 70% by 2030.
The firm has acquired greater than 75 companies in high-cremation states, together with Arizona, California, Colorado, and Florida. Most of these funeral properties common a bit over 150 funerals per yr.
Individual funeral properties “don’t have access to marketing budgets, they don’t have access to safety and health plans and benefits and these different things,” mentioned Robertson, the Foundation Partners CEO. “And because we have the ability to drive marketing and do other things, we also take that 150-call firm to maybe 200 calls.”
Robertson mentioned the funeral residence trade is completely different from different sectors that non-public fairness companies would possibly contemplate investing in, describing it as a calling similar to working in hospice care. Foundation Partners is lucky their backers perceive the service a part of the trade, in addition to the financials, he mentioned. “Private equity firms aren’t necessarily known for having deep compassion for people. They’re more known for their financial returns,” he mentioned. “To get both is really important.”
Foundation Partners owns Tulip Cremation, a web-based service that enables individuals to order a cremation with only a few clicks—and with out having to set foot in a funeral residence. Tulip at the moment operates in 9 states the place Foundation Partners has funeral properties. The firm expects the service to ultimately function nationally.
Haneman mentioned progressive approaches like Tulip’s are sorely wanted within the funeral residence trade, which has barely modified in 100 years. “It’s absurd to me that the average cost of a funeral is running $7,000 to $10,000,” she mentioned. “People need less expensive options, and innovation is going to get us there.” Tulip fees lower than $1,000 for a cremation; ashes are mailed again to the households.
“Private equity investment has the potential to go one of two directions: It’s either going to entrench status quo and drive price, or the purpose of the investment is going to be disruption,” Haneman mentioned. “And disruption promises the possibility of bringing more affordable processes to market.”
KHN (Kaiser Health News) is a nationwide newsroom that produces in-depth journalism about well being points. Together with Policy Analysis and Polling, KHN is likely one of the three main working applications at KFF (Kaiser Family Foundation). KFF is an endowed nonprofit group offering data on well being points to the nation.